The AMR Action Fund is a public-private partnership investing in the development of new antimicrobial therapeutics. It focuses investments in clinical-stage companies that are developing antimicrobial therapeutics for priority pathogens, as identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
The Asian Development Bank (ADB)’s priority work in the health sector aims to improve health infrastructure and systems, as well as governance and financing. ADB works with governments to pursue universal health coverage in the Asia Pacific region, as well as with non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and private sector partners. In 2013, ADB set up the Regional Malaria and Other Communicable Disease Threats Trust Fund (RMTF) to support developing countries in the region in developing multi-country and multisector responses to urgent malaria and other communicable disease issues.
The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) supports a range of national and regional programmes in global health to improve development cooperation on priority health issues and enhance Australia’s health development program. Within the Global Health division of DFAT, the Indo-Pacific Centre for Health Security invests in projects in the Pacific and Southeast Asia, including a focus on infection prevention and control and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). These project investments are complemented by targeted support for the work of key multilateral organisations in the region, including the World Health Organization.
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) is a not-for-profit organisation that aims to fight poverty, disease and inequity across the world. BMGF’s Global Health Division focuses on reducing the burden of infectious diseases and the leading causes of death for women and children in developing countries.
The Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) is a not-for-profit working closely with governments and the private sector to strengthen disease surveillance and data analysis, and support and scale up the delivery of preventive and therapeutic interventions, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Originally focusing on HIV/AIDS, CHAI has expanded its focus to cover a host of infectious diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis, and neglected tropical diseases.
The Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Biopharmaceutical Accelerator (CARB-X) is a global not-for-profit partnership led by Boston University and funded by a consortium of governments and foundations. It is dedicated to supporting early-stage antibacterial research and development of innovative therapeutics, preventatives and rapid diagnostics for drug-resistant bacteria. CARB-X focuses investment on projects that target priority pathogens, as identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
The Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi) is a not-for-profit research and development organisation founded by the World Health Organization (WHO) and five international research institutions. It is dedicated to the discovery, development, and delivery of affordable and patient-friendly treatments across the world, covering a range of historically neglected disease areas.
The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung), abbreviated BMBF, provides funding for research projects and institutions, and has a department specifically devoted to Health Research. As part of the German Antibiotic Resistance Strategy, BMBF provides substantial support for research and development in antibiotic resistance via various funding opportunities. Key examples are the Global Antimicrobial Research and Development Hub (Global AMR R&D Hub), bringing together the European Commission, national governments, and international funding organisations, and InfectControl 2020, a research collaboration between research institutes and industrial companies.
The Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) is the UK’s ministerial department responsible for foreign affairs and international development. A key FCDO priority is supporting research in infectious diseases, including developing new technologies and supporting health systems strengthening in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Among others, FCDO is working with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), CEPI, Wellcome Trust, the UK Department for Health and Social Care (DHSC), the Medical Research Council (MRC), and the WHO to drive forward the agenda on infectious disease preparedness.
The Global AMR Innovation Fund (GAMRIF) is UK aid fund that supports research and development around the world to reduce the threat of antimicrobial resistance in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). GAMRIF works with a range of organisations using bilateral partnerships, global research initiatives and product development partnerships, establishing global and international research partnerships, leveraging investments from partners and donors to support sustainable partnerships for AMR, and funding projects that aim to develop solutions specifically for LMICs.
The Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP) is a not-for-profit organisation developing new treatments in the area of serious bacterial infections, with a focus on children and newborns, and sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhoea. Established by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Drugs for Neglected Disease Initiative (DNDi) in 2016, GARDP is a core element of WHO’s Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance.
The Global Health Innovative Technology Fund (GHIT Fund) is an international public-private partnership between the Government of Japan, multiple pharmaceutical companies, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). It facilitates global R&D partnerships for the discovery and development of new health technologies for the developing world and invests in these global R&D partnerships through a grant-making mechanism. Its portfolio covers drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics in infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and neglected tropical diseases.
Initiative 5% is a facility implemented by the public agency Expertise France and complementing the Global Fund Initiative in building a more effective response to pandemics, with a focus on HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, and strengthening the health impact of funded programmes for populations. Set up in 2011, it supports recipients in accessing Global Fund funding and improving the effectiveness of grants, mainly in French-speaking countries.
Irish Aid is the Irish Government’s programme for overseas development, managed by the Development Co-operation Division of the Department of Foreign Affairs. Irish Aid invests in research that focuses on improving the health of the poorest and most vulnerable communities, covering infectious diseases such as malaria and HIV, as well as vaccine development.
The Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) was established in April 1991 by the Korean Government as a governmental agency dedicated to providing grant aid programs. It operates both domestically and internationally as a development cooperation platform contributing to accomplish the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS). Through its Global Disease Eradication Fund, KOICA partners with international non-governmental organisations and the private sector to prevent and eradicate infectious diseases in developing countries.
MedAccess is a UK-based social-finance enterprise accelerating access to vaccines, medicines, diagnostics and technologies for people in underserved communities. Founded by British International Investment, MedAccess brokers and finances agreements that enable suppliers and procurers to get products to health workers and patients more quickly. Its portfolio covers HIV/AIDS and syphilis, tuberculosis, malaria, and other neglected diseases.
The Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) is a product development partnership (PDP) working to address unmet medical needs for key populations, such as children, pregnant women and people suffering from relapsing and drug-resistant malaria. MMV holds a large portfolio of antimalarial projects worldwide, covering all stages of product development.
The government of The Netherlands has committed to enhance its efforts in global health, having established a Dutch Global Health Strategy. The focus will be on strengthening health systems across the world and international cooperation in preparation for future pandemics.
Health is one of five thematic areas given priority in Norwegian development policy. The other four are education; private sector development and job creation; climate, renewable energy and the environment; and humanitarian aid. These five areas account for the majority of Norway’s aid budget.
Within the health portfolio, the Norwegian Agency for International Development Cooperation (Norad) has a mandated focus on reducing health inequities and reaching the poorest and most marginalised communities with development aid.
The RIGHT Foundation is a South Korea-based public-private partnership (PPP) between the Government of Korea (GOK), Korean Life Science companies, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). Dedicated to supporting global health R&D, it provides a platform for catalysing collaboration between Korean and international researchers to develop vaccines, treatments and diagnostics for infectious diseases (both endemic and emerging) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
The Rockefeller Foundation has long been a pioneer in global health, leading campaigns to eradicate hookworm disease, malaria and yellow fever in the first half of the twentieth century, and funding research into vaccine development. Having shifted its approach in the 1970s, moving away from campaigns against a single disease towards multidisciplinary efforts, the US-based Foundation helps developing countries across the world with community health, environmental issues and other major challenges.
The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) is the international cooperation agency within the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, working with local communities across the world to promote healthy lifestyles and the prevention of noncommunicable diseases. It also supports the prevention, treatment and research on communicable diseases such as malaria, neglected tropical diseases, and HIV/AIDS.
TB Alliance is a not-for-profit product development partnership (PDP) dedicated to the discovery, development and delivery of better, faster-acting and affordable tuberculosis drugs. It holds the largest pipeline of new TB drugs in history and has advanced multiple products to market.
Unitaid is a global health agency engaged in finding innovative solutions to prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases more quickly, more affordably and effectively, in low- and middle-income countries. Their work includes funding initiatives to address diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, as well as HIV co-infections and co-morbidities such as cervical cancer and hepatitis C, and cross-cutting areas, such as fever management.
The US Agency for International Development (USAID)’s global health efforts are focused on three strategic priorities: preventing child and maternal deaths, controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and combating infectious diseases. Among others, the latter covers malaria, tuberculosis, neglected tropical diseases pandemic influenza.
Within the US Administration for Strategic Preparedness and Response, the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) invests in advanced research and development, acquisition, and manufacturing of medical countermeasures needed to combat health security threats – including vaccines, drugs, therapeutics, diagnostic tools, and non-pharmaceutical products. BARDA’s active areas of interest (AOIs) include antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and influenza and emerging infectious diseases (IEID).
The US Department of Defense (DOD) works with foreign nations to establish and develop international partnerships through joint medical training exercises and public health initiatives to support and strengthen the public health capabilities of partner nations, as well as to improve interoperability. The DOD also engages with non-government organisations, academia and private-sector organisations to enhance global health objectives.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary US federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research. One particular area of concern within NIH’s work on infectious diseases is antimicrobial resistance (AMR) with a focus on finding new diagnostics that can quickly detect resistance and new antibiotic drugs and vaccines to prevent and treat bacterial infections.
The Wellcome Trust is an independent, global charitable foundation supporting research projects in the areas of infectious diseases, climate and health, and mental health. In the field of infectious diseases, the Trust’s focus is on developing an improved understanding of disease reservoirs, environmental zoonotic threats, and drug resistance, as well as supporting the creation of a data and surveillance architecture to better detect and improve escalation.